Much of the Islamic world is resource rich, has been under Western domination for most of its modern history, and is struggling to come to terms with a seemingly unjust international system and issues of national identities and nationalism, ethnicity, tribalism, feudalism, social change, political reform and modernisation. This struggle is taking place simultaneously on two fronts — at home and abroad — causing domestic disorder and global tensions.
In most societies, populations living under a Western-oriented but illiberal ruling elite have been seeking justice and self-fulfilment through different, but confused, ways — through democracy, Islam and nationalism. But their struggle has collided with America’s post 9/11 wars, enabling the extremists to hijack the agenda.
Two controversial wars and an ill-defined ‘war on terrorism’ that portrayed the enemy in such abstract terms, and the conflict as a war of ideas, ended up magnifying the enemy and enlarging the scope and meaning of the conflict, making it look like a war against Islam. This sharpened tensions between Islam and the West, boosting the agenda and popularity of extremists both at home and abroad. At home, the political and economic failure of leadership in Islamic societies has ceded ground to the better organised and motivated extremists; abroad, especially in Europe, immigrant communities are falling back on extremists not only as defenders of a faith under siege, but also for protection against injustices, discrimination and intolerance.
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